Educational Questions & Answers

Extension Education - A Self Rewarding Profession

Extension Education is the process of teaching rural people how to live better by learning ways to improve their farm, home and community institutions? (J Paul Leagans).

Extension Education is ?helping people to help themselves? in changing their behavior (Knowledge, attitude and skill) in a desirable direction in order to bring overall development in an individual, and in his family, in his community and thereby in his nation. But the task developing an individual is not so easy. For this an Extension Education to be a teacher, guide, friend and philosopher to the villagers/rural poor. Thus if one aspires to be an Extension Educator he must be processing an attitude and aptitude essentially demanded by the profession (i.e. interest and ability to work for the villagers) in addition to having a sound knowledge and understanding of the subject. Thus it can be a challenging profession with a satisfaction for the work done.

Institutes / Universities offering degree in Extension Education:

The following branches of the Extension Education: Agricultural Extension, Veterinary/Animal Husbandry Extension, Diary Extension, Fishery Extension, Home Science Extension, etc. fall within the purview of higher agricultural education with emphasis on respective technical areas. In India the subject is taught a master?s and doctoral level. With a few exceptions all the State Agricultural Universities (SAUs) and four National Institute (NIs)/ Deemed Universities (DUs) of Indian Council Agricultural Research (ICAR) offers master?s degree for two years (one year course work and one year research work) and doctoral degree for a minimum of three years (one year course work and two years research work) in the branches of Extension Education. Four ICAR premier institutes offering master?s and doctoral degree in Extension Education are as follows:

Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI), New Delhi offers M.Sc. and PhD in Agricultural Extension Education.

Indian Veterinary Research Institute (IVRI), U.P offers Master?s of Veterinary Science (M.V.Sc) and PhD in Veterinary Extension Education.

National Diary Research Institute (NDRI), Haryana offers M.Sc and PhD in Diary Extension Education.

Central Institute of Fisheries Education (CIFE), Mumbai offers Master?s of Fisheries Science (MFSc.) and PhD in Fisheries Extension Education.


With some few variations in contents and titles the following courses are offered in Extension Education by the SAUs and NIs at the master?s and doctoral level in general.

Fundamentals of Extension Education

Extension/Social Science Research

Extension Teaching Methods in Audio-Visual Aids.

Introductory Rural Sociology

Research in Methodology

Rural Development Programmes

Diffusion and adoption of innovations

Communication Process I, II

Extension Programme Planning and Evaluation

Extension Organization and Administration

Advanced Social Science Research Methods

Theory Construction / Scaling Techniques

Training Methodology

Dynamics and Social Changes

Group Dynamics and Rural Leadership

Learning Theories

Introduction to Social Psychology

Introduction to General Psychology

Development Administration

Extension Management

(List is indicative, not exhaustive. To know more about the discipline, eligibility for admission, fellowship, how and when to apply, the SAUs/NIs offering the degree, etc. log onto:

Employment Opportunities:

There are government, private and a few consultancy services one can opt as per his qualification and experience. Among government services there are posts of Lecturer/ Assistant Professor in the SAUs; Scientist in the ICAR/CSIR Institutes, DRDO etc. Training Associate (TA) in Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVKs) run by selected ICAR institutes, SAUs, State Departments etc. Besides, Temporary job as a JRF/SRF Research Associate/ Project Associates etc. in various ICAR, CSIR, DRDO sponsored research projects under ICAR, CSIR institutes, SAUs etc are also available. A large number of national and international NGOs engaged in rural development and related R&D activities recruit Extension personnel in different positions depending on the educational qualifications and experiences in the field concerned. Also KVKs run by several NGOs employ Extension Educationists as Scientist. Presently, opportunity to work as a counselor or consultant is limited. Nevertheless, enough scope will be there for Extensionists to explore and exploit the opportunities in the area of self-employment in the future.

Courses And Institutes In India - Page 1

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Extension Education - A Self Rewarding Profession