** Scientists and Mathematician **

**Scientists and Mathematician**

Website:http://www.scienceandscientist.org/

Alessandro Volta - (1745 - 1827)

Alessandro Volta, an Italian Physicist, was an early investigator of electrial science. He invented the electric battery, the electrophorus and the electroscope, and studies about the behaviour of heat and gas. Voltas invention of the electrophorus in 1775 attracted wide attention. This is a simple device that generates static electricity. His experiment, performed in 1800, was the first voltaic pile, which eventually became the battery. The basic unit of electricity, the volt, is named after him.

Augustin Louis Cauchy - (1789 - 1857)

Cauchy was one of the most important mathematicians of the early nineteenth century and a dominating figure in French mathematics. His work ranged over vast areas of mathematics, in almost 800 papers, but he is chiefly considered as one of the founders of rigorous mathematical analysis. In 1812, he used "determinants" in its modern sense. His work is the most complete of the early works on determinants. he proved the earlier results and gave new results on minors and adjoints. he also introduced the idea of similar matrices.

Benjamin Franklin - (1706 - 1790)

Benjamin Franklin was a writer,publisher,public servant,scientist,philanthropist,and diplomat. He was born in Boston, Massachusetts, on Jan 17,1706. Franklin was one of the first scientists to experiment with electricity. His kite experiment in 1752 proved that lightning is electricity. Later Franklin invented the lightning conductor.

Charles Augustin De Coulomb - (1736-1806)

Coulomb was a French scientist, inventor and an army engineer who made fundamental contributions in the fields of friction, electricity and magnetism. He formulated Coulomb's Law / Coulomb invented a number of instruments to measure the magnetic and electric forces. The unit of electric charge, the coulomb, is named in his honour.

Cayley, "The Father Of Matrix"

Arthur Cayley was born on August 16, 1821, in Engaland. His genius showed itself at an early age. He published his first research paper while an under-graduate of 20. After graduating from Trinity College, Cambridge, he stayed on for three years as a tutor. In 1863, he accepted the newly established Sadlerian professorship of mathematics at Cambridge University. His important innovations in mathematics were the notions of an abstract group, group algebra and the matrix concept. He used two vertical lines on either side of an array to denote the determinant. He also made major contributions to geometry and linear algebra.

Gauss Carl Friedrich - (1777 - 1855)

Carl Gauss was one of the greatest mathematicians who have ever lived, and his work led to many developments in mathematics and science. He also made important discoveries in science, and invented the heliotrope and the telegraph. A unit of magnetism, the gauss, is named after him. Carl Gauss was born in Brunswick, Germany. in 1799, Gauss received his doctorate for writing a fundamental proof of algebra.

Heisenberg - (1901 - 1976)

Werner Heisenberg, a German Physicist, is best known for his contributions to atomic theory. Heisenberg developed the uncertainty principle. He won the 1932 Nobel Prize for physics for founding one version of the field of physics called quantum mechanics.

J.J.Thomson - (1856 - 1940)

Thomson, Sir Joseph John, a British Physicist, was born near Manchester, England. He received the 1906 Nobel Prize for Physics for his discovery of the electron. Thomson was also the first to separate isotopes of the chemical elements.

Niels Bohr - (1885 - 1962)

Niels Bohr was a noted Danish physicist who developed a theory about the structure of the atom. Bohr was awarded the 1922 Nobel Prize for physics chiefly for his work on atomic structure. During the 1930's Bohr made contributions to the study of the nucleus of the atom and to an understanding of quantum mechanics.

Robert A.Millikan - (1868 - 1953)

U.S.physicist honoured with the Noble Prize for Physics in 1923 for his study of the elementary electronic charge and the photoelectric effect.

After studying at the universities of Berlin and Gottingen,Millikan joined the faculty of the University of Chicago, where in 1911 he performed his famous oil-drop experiment to determine the value of the electronic charge. He also verified Einstein's photoelectric equation and obtained a precise value for the Planck's constant.

Rutherford - (1871 - 1937)

The great scientist Lord Rutherford was born at Brightwater, near Nelson in New Zeland. Rutherford made the important discovery that the formation or changing of elements into one another was responsible for radioactive phenomena. In 1908, he was awarded the Nobel Prize for chemistry.

Sir.James Chadwick - (1891 - 1974)

An English physicist who received the Nobel Prize for physics in 1935 for the discovery of the neutron. From 1923 he worked with Ernest Rutherford in the Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge, where they studied the transmutaion of elements by bombarding them with alpha particles and investigated the nature of the atomic nucleus, identifyiing the proton, the nucleus of hydrogen atom, as a constituent of the nuclei of other atoms.

Reference Website:www.scienceandscientist.org

** Scientists and Mathematician **